Lesson 19: Passive Voice of Greek Verbs, Part II

In Lesson 18, we learned about the Simple and Continuous tenses of the Passive voice of Greek verbs. In Lesson 19, we’ll examine

  • the Perfect tenses*,
  • the Passive Participle

and we’ll learn a few tricks for correct spelling.

———

*In Lesson 18, we talked about the construction of Perfect tenses:
auxiliary verb ‘έχω’ (‘είχα’, ‘θα έχω’) + Past infinitive
This construction is mostly used to denote that the action is, was, or will be finished at the time mentioned.

There is also a second way of forming the Perfect tenses in the Passive voice, which involves the use of the Passive Participle:
auxiliary verb ‘είμαι’ (‘ήμουν’, ‘θα είμαι’) + Past participle
This construction is used to denote the outcome of the action — thus,

έχω ντυθεί (=I have been dressed) refers mainly to the action, without excluding the outcome (I am dressed now), while

είμαι ντυμένος (=I am dressed) refers basically to the outcome itself.

 

Passive Participle

The Passive Participle has 3 genders and it is inflected as an adjective.

  1. εργάζομαι –> εργαζόμενος
    The verbs which are stressed on the antepenultimate form the participle with endings in -όμενος, -όμενη, -όμενο.
  2. κινούμαι –> κινούμενος
    The verbs which are stressed on the penultimate form the participle with endings in -ούμενος, -ούμενη, -ούμενο.
  3. αγαπώ –> αγαπημένος
    The verbs which are stressed on the ultimate form the participle with endings in -ημένος, -ημένη, -ημένο .
  4. σιδερώνω (=iron) –> σιδερωμένος
    The verbs ending in -ώνω form the participle with endings in -ωμένος, -ωμένη, -ωμένο.
  5. ξοδεύω (=spend) –> ξοδεμένος
    The verbs ending in -εύω form the participle with endings in -εμένος, -εμένη, -εμένο.
  6. σκουπίζω (=sweep) –> σκουπισμένος
    The verbs ending in -ίζω form the participle with endings in -ισμένος, -ισμένη, -ισμένο.
  7. τρίβω (=rub, scrub) –> τριμμένος
    The verbs with a root ending in the letters π, β, φ, πτ (εγκαταλείπω =leave, abandon; σκάβω =dig, γράφω, βλάπτω =damage, hurt) form the participle with endings in -μμένος, -μμένη, -μμένο. (Notice the double -μμ-)

Since the participle is inflected as an adjective, it is only natural that the plural will be formed as
verb in plural + participle in plural 

Thus, we can get the following forms:

Present Perfect (I am untied, loose)

Singular Plural
είμαι λυμένος είμαστε λυμένοι
είσαι λυμένος είστε λυμένοι
είναι λυμένος είναι λυμένοι

Past Perfect (I was loose)

Singular Plural
ήμουν λυμένος ήμασταν λυμένοι
ήσουν λυμένος ήσασταν λυμένοι
ήταν λυμένος ήταν λυμένοι

Future Perfect (I will be loose)

Singular Plural
θα είμαι λυμένος θα είμαστε λυμένοι
θα είσαι λυμένος θα είστε λυμένοι
θα είναι λυμένος θα είναι λυμένοι

————–

Standard Verb Endings

  1. Verbs eding in -ώνω:
    τελειώνω (=finish), λερώνω (=sully), θυμώνω (=get angry)
  2. Verbs ending in -ίζω:
    ποτίζω (=water, irrigate), γεμίζω (=fill)
    Exceptions:  δανείζω (=lend), δακρύζω (=shed tears), αθροίζω (=sum up), πήζω (=congeal, set), etc
  3. Verbs in -εύω:
    κινδυνεύω (=be in danger), παλεύω (=struggle, wrestle)
    Exception: κλέβω (=steal)
  4. Verbs in -αίνω:
    μπαίνω (=enter), βγαίνω (=exit), ανεβαίνω (=ascend)
    Exception: μένω (=stay), δένω (=tie), πλένω (=wash)
  5. Verbs in -έλλω, -άλλω*:
    ανατέλλω (=rise, as for the sun), αναβάλλω (=postpone)
    Exception: θέλω (=want)
  6. Verbs in -άσσω, -άττω:
    παρατάσσω (=array, deploy), διαπράττω (=perpetrate)

* The verbs ending in -έλλω, -άλλω are written:

  • with double -λλ- in the present, the imperfect & in future continuous (i.e. when the action expressed by the verb has a sense of continuity, perpetuality) ;
  •  with a single -λ- in simple past and in all the tenses which are formed based on simple past’s root,
For example,
Present αναβάλλω αμφιβάλλω (=doubt)
Imperfect ανέβαλλα αμφέβαλλα
Simple Past ανέβαλα αμφέβαλα
Future  θα αναβάλω θα αμφιβάλω
Future Continuous θα αναβάλλω θα αμφιβάλλω
Present Perfect έχω αναβάλει έχω αμφιβάλει
Past Perfect είχα αναβάλει είχα αμφιβάλει
Future Perfect θα έχω αναβάλει θα έχω αμφιβάλει

———————

Exercises

I. Strike out the erroneous choice:

  1. Αύριο θα ποτίσω / θα ποτήσω τα λουλούδια.
  2. Μόλις πήξει / πίξει η κρέμα, το γλυκό θα είναι έτοιμο.
    (=as soon as the cream sets, the cake will be ready)
  3. Ο Νίκος ύψωσε / υψώσει τον χαρταετό (=kite).
  4. Η Μαρία λούστηκε / έλουσε χτες το πρωί.
  5. Κοιμόμουν / θα κοιμηθώ όταν ήλθες.
ΙΙ. Translate the following sentences:
  1. I am sleeping in the car.
  2. Maria was reading, when Eva entered the room.
  3. “Wait, I’m coming,” Kyriakos shouted from his room.
  4. Don’t worry, I’ll remember her name.
Key to the exercises:
I. Strike out…:
θα ποτίσω, πήξει, ύψωσε, λούστηκε, κοιμόμουν
ΙΙ.
  1. Κοιμάμαι (μέσα) στο αυτοκίνητο.
  2. Η Μαρία διάβαζε, όταν η Εύα μπήκε στο δωμάτιο.
  3. “Περίμενε, έρχομαι,” φώναξε ο Κυριάκος από το δωμάτιό του.
  4. Μην ανησυχείς, θα θυμηθώ το όνομά της.

 

Posted in Learn Greek | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Syros island, the Lady of the Aegean

The island complex of Cyclades, to which Syros belongs, is located at the southern Aegean sea.

With such islands like

  • Melos, where the famous statue of Venus (the one adorning today the Louvre Museum) was discovered;
  • Santorini, a favorite destination for loving couples from all over the world;
  • Mykonos, adopted by the international jet-set and by the LGBT community,

as well as many more breath-taking small and bigger ones, images from the Cyclades circulate all over the ‘net and the glossy magazines, raising the imagination and the desires of all age and income groups.

.
Location – Transport

Syros is at the centre of the Cyclades island complex. It is regularly served:

  • by ferry boats, all year long, from Piraeus, and also from Rafina, another well-known ferry port near Athens;
  • by plane, with Syros’ airport being at no more than3 km(~2 miles) from the island’s capital, Hermoupolis;
  • by bus lines covering most of the island and allowing easy transport between the villages and beaches of Syros (during summer time, some of these lines operate on a 24-hour basis);
  • by ferry boat lines connecting Syros with several Cyclades islands.

The Quarantine House (Lazareta)


Syros History

Excavations at the areas of Halandriani and Castri have proved that Syros was inhabited since pre-historic times (3rd millennium B.C.)

Prehistoric settlements:
The settlements belong to the Proto-Cycladic civilization (2,700-2,200 BC) and are among the most well-preserved sites of this historic era, with a cemetery with more than 600 tombs containing offerings, as well as remnants of houses, metallurgy workshops, fortifications, etc. Some of the findings are housed at the Archaeological Museum of Syros island.

The island was continually inhabited throughout the passing centuries, under the consecutive control of Phoenicians, Minoans, Mycenaeans, and others. Archaeologists have discovered vestiges of settlements of the Greek classical and pre-classical eras at various spots of the island. The great philosopher Pherecydes, master of Pythagoras of Samos, was born at Syros.

The island flourished up to the beginning of the Christian era. Later, pirates plagued Syros; then, the island came under Venetian rule; in the early 17th century, the Turks destroyed Syros. All these adventures caused the quasi-devastation of the island, which remained with no more than 2,500-3,000 inhabitants (16th-18th centuries).

Syros began to flourish in the mid-19th century, when it became the main port of the newly-founded Hellenic (Greek) state, until the mid-20th century, when Piraeus took over the reigns as the major port city in Greece.

 

Main Towns

Hermoupolis
Hermoupolis’ architecture reflects the unique history of this Greek island. Massively populated in the 19th century and quickly becoming the main commercial port of the newly-founded state, the town displays rich and impressive buildings of the period, mansions, churches, museums, and numerous places of historical interest.  Its name actually means, The Town of Hermes (Greek god of commerce).

The Town Hall of Hermoupolis. Designed by Εrnst Ziller and built in 1876-1891, this neoclassical building is one of the many architectural jewels of Hermoupolis.

 

Vaporia (=Ships) was the quarter of rich ship owners and captains of Syros (19th century). Today it is one of the most picturesque spots of the island with wonderful, elegant mansions, many of which have been recently renovated.

Syros, Hermoupolis, St Nicholas Greek-Orthodox church

Beginning from the port, the town climbs up two distinct hills: one used to be the quarter of the Orthodox inhabitants (Hermoupolis), the other used to be the quarter of the Catholics of the islands (Ano Syros).

.
Ano Syros
In sheer contrast with the urban, neoclassical architecture of Ermoupolis, Ano Syros is a medieval walled settlement with cobblestone-paved alleys, roofed passageways and traditional two-storeyed houses. Built  by the Venetians on a twin hill opposite to what later became the town of Ermoupolis, Ano Syros is a historical heritage site.

Ano Syros, San Giorgio, Cathedral & Cappuccin Monastery, first built in the 13th century


Syros
Beaches and Villages

Galissas
One of the most popular resorts onSyrosisland, a long sandy beach on a quiet little bay, with several hotels and rooms to let. Water sports, good food and varied nightlife options make Galissas a perfect choice for either families or younger visitors.

Syros, Galissas beach

 

Varvaroussa
Besides popular and crowded beaches,Syros has got several less frequented spots, with no umbrellas, taverns or other modern facilities to spoil their natural beauty. Varvaroussa is a rock island that can be reached by boat (regular transportation from Kini beach) or on foot from the nearby Apano Meria.

Kini
A picturesque fishing village turned into a family resort, with little hotels and rooms bordering the sandy beach, fish taverns offering fresh and tasty sea food, places of cultural interest, as well as a couple of religious festivals with charming local customs.

Syros, Kini village & beach

 

——————-

Image sources:

Quarantine HouseChurch of St Nicholas, Ano Syros 1Ano Syros 2, Galissas, Kini
Vaporia & the Town Hall: wikipedia article on Hermoupolis

Posted in Travel | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Lesson 18: Passive voice of Greek verbs

Up to now, we have learnt the Active voice of Greek verbs.
In the Active voice, the subject of the verb performs an action, and this action

  • either  has an effect on a person or object (transitive verbs), or
  • does not affect another person or object (in the case of intransitive verbs)

On the other hand, Passive voice denotes that

  • the subject of the verb is the recipient of the energy that is expressed by it
    e.g.: Τα χέρια του λερώθηκαν με αίμα. (=His hands were stained with blood)
  • the subject of the verb is both the actor and the recipient of the action
    e.g. Ο Κώστας κοιμάται ακόμα. (=Costas is still sleeping.)
  • there are (at least) two subjects who, through their action, influence one another
    e.g. Η Μαρία και η Καίτη τσακώνονται. (=Maria and Katy are fighting with each other.)

The majority of active Greek verbs can be constructed in the Passive voice, even though exceptions are not rare:

  • verbs used only in the Active voice:πηγαίνω =go, τρέχω =run, ζω =live, ξυπνώ =wake up, υπάρχω =exist, πεινώ =be hungry, νυστάζω =be drowsy, etc;
  • verbs used only in the Passive voice:έρχομαι =come, αισθάνομαι =feel, δέχομαι =accept, θυμάμαι =remember, εύχομαι =wish, σέβομαι =respect, σκέφτομαι =think, etc

Let us see how a simple Active verb will turn into Passive:

The ending that characterizes the Passive voice in the Present tense is -μαι (-ομαι or -ιέμαι, depending on whether the active verb is stressed on the ultimate or not):

λύν-ω –> λύν-ομαι (untie –> be untied)
χτυπ-ώ –> χτυπ-ιέμαι (hit, knock –> be hit)
κιν-ώ –> κιν-ούμαι (move, v.tr. –> move, v.intr.)
 - //-   –> κοιμ-άμαι (sleep)

The tenses are formed as follows (first person singular) :

Present λύν-ομαι
χτυπ-ιέμαι
κιν-ούμαι
θυμ-άμαι
Past Continuous λυν-όμουν
χτυπ-ιόμουν
κινι-όμουν
θυμ-όμουν
Simple Past  λύ-θ-ηκα
χτυπ-ήθ-ηκα
νικ-ήθ-ηκα
θυμ-ήθ-ηκα
Future Continuous θα λύν-ομαι
θα χτυπ-ιέμαι
θα κιν-ούμαι
θα θυμ-άμαι
Simple Future  θα λυ-θ-ώ
θα χτυπ-ηθ-ώ
θα κιν-ηθ-ώ
θα θυμ-ηθ-ώ
Present Perfect έχω λυ-θ-εί
έχω χτυπ-ηθ-εί
έχω κιν-ηθ-εί
έχω θυμ-ηθ-εί
Past Perfect είχα λυ-θ-εί
είχα χτυπ-ηθ-εί
είχα κιν-ηθ-εί
είχα θυμ-ηθ-εί
Future Perfect θα έχω λυ-θ-εί
θα έχω χτυπ-ηθ-εί
θα έχω κιν-ηθ-εί
θα έχω θυμ-ηθ-εί

Just like the theme of the Active Simple Past changes and ends in -σ-,
the Passive Simple Past is distinguished by a characteristic -θ- or -ηθ-.
Sometimes, instead of the -θ- (which is deemed somehow ‘archaic’ for some verbs), -τ- is used, as in:
στολίζ-ω –> στολίζ-ομαι –> στολί-σ-τηκα (=adorned myself)
κρύβ-ω –> κρύβ-ομαι –> κρύ-φ-τηκα (=hid myself)

We also see that the differences in the declension lie mainly in the Present and in the Future Continuous (formed after the Present) tenses, while all other tenses are identical for all variations in the endings of the verbs.

Let us explore the declension of a Greek verb in the Passive voice:

Present

a. verbs in -ω –> -ομαι

Singular Plural
εγώ λύν-ομαι εμείς λυν-όμαστε
εσύ λύν-εσαι εσείς λύν-εστε
αυτός λύν-εται αυτοί λύν-ονται

b. Verbs in -ώ –> -ιέμαι

Singular  Plural
εγώ χτυπ-ιέμαι εμείς χτυπ-ιόμαστε
εσύ χτυπ-ιέσαι εσείς χτυπ-ιέστε
αυτός χτυπ-ιέται αυτοί χτυπ-ιούνται

c. Verbs in -ώ –> -ούμαι

Singular Plural
εγώ κιν-ούμαι εμείς κιν-ούμαστε
εσύ κιν-είσαι εσείς κιν-είστε
αυτός κιν-είται αυτοί κιν-ούνται

d. Verbs in -άμαι

Singular Plural
εγώ κοιμ-άμαι εμείς κοιμ-όμαστε
εσύ κοιμ-άσαι εσείς κοιμ-άστε
αυτός κοιμ-άται αυτοί κοιμ-ούνται


Past Continuous

Singular Plural
εγώ λυν-όμουν εμείς λυν-όμασταν
εσύ λυν-όσουν εσείς λυν-όσασταν
αυτός λυν-όταν αυτοί λύν-ονταν


Simple Past

Singular Plural
εγώ λύ-θ-ηκα εμείς λυ-θ-ήκαμε
εσύ λύ-θ-ηκες εσείς λυ-θ-ήκατε
αυτός λύ-θ-ηκε αυτοί λύ-θ-ηκαν


Simple Future

Singular Plural
θα λυ-θ-ώ θα λυ-θ-ούμε
θα λυ-θ-είς θα λυ-θ-είτε
θα λυ-θ-εί θα λυ-θ-ούν

As for the Future Continuous, this one’s modeled after the Present (only the future particle ‘θα’ is added).

The Perfect tenses, on the other hand, rely on the basic construction

auxiliary verb ‘έχω’ (in present/past/future) +  Past infinitive*
(*this one also based on the Simple Past theme)
έχω λυθεί – είχα λυθεί – θα έχω λυθεί

—————————-

Exercises

Choose the right form of the verb to fill the blanks:

1. Η Μαρία (ντύνω) ______________ γρήγορα και (πάω) _________στο πάρτι.
a. ντύνεις, πηγαίνει b. έντυσε, πήγε c. ντύθηκε, πήγε  d. ντύθηκε, πήγαινε

2.  (Θυμάμαι) _____________ να μου (φέρνω) ____________ τα περιοδικά;
a. θυμάσαι, έφερες b. θα θυμηθείς, φέρνεις c. θυμήθηκες, φέρεις d. θα έχεις θυμηθεί, φέρεις

3. (Διαβάζω) __________ τρία κεφάλαια από το βιβλίο και μετά (κοιμάμαι) ___________.
a. διαβάζουμε, κοιμόμαστε b. διαβάζεις, θα κοιμηθείς c. διάβασα, θα έχω κοιμηθεί d. διάβασα, κοιμήθηκα

4. Το σπίτι που (χτίζω) ____________ ο Αντρέας στην όχθη της λίμνης (γεμίζω) __________ υγρασία γρήγορα.
a. έχτισε, θα γεμίσει b. χτίζει, γέμισε  c. χτίζεται, γεμίζει  d. θα χτίσει, θα γεμίζεται

 

Key to the exercises:

1. Η Μαρία ντύθηκε γρήγορα και πήγε στο πάρτι.
2. Θυμήθηκες να μου φέρεις τα περιοδικά;
3. Διάβασα τρία κεφάλαια από το βιβλίο και μετά κοιμήθηκα.
4. Tο σπίτι που έχτισε ο Αντρέας στην όχθη της λίμνης θα γεμίσει υγρασία γρήγορα.

 

Posted in Learn Greek | Tagged | Leave a comment

Lesson 17: More Greek Prepositions

Besides those Prepositions of modern Greek language that we learned in Lesson 16, there are also some Prepositions coming from ancient Greek. These are rarely or never used alone in a sentence — most usually, they are added to words or word roots in order to form new meanings, more or less relevant.

Knowing these ancient (“scholarly”) Prepositions and their original meaning will help us have a better understanding of the words they’re used in — in other words, they are very helpful for Greek vocabulary learning, as they are employed in a great number of Greek words.

Some of their basic meanings are:

1. ανά up, upwards, on
throughout, along
again
2. διά through, via
by way of
split into
3. εκ from
4. εν in, at, within
5. επί on, upon
(multiplication)
6. περί around, about
7. προ before
8. συν plus
9. υπέρ for, in favor of
atop
10. υπό below, under


Examples of “scholarly” (“archaic”) Prepositions
as  used in the production of words and in standard phrases

  1. ανά
    - διάρθρωση (n.) = structure –> ανα + διάρθρωση = re-structure
    - βαίνω (v.tr.) = go, wend –> ανα + βάτης (n.) = rider, jockey (= the one who goes on a horse, bike, etc)
    - “ανά την υφήλιο” = throughout the globe/world
    .
  2. διά
    - γωνία (n.) = corner –> δια + γώνιος (n., adj.) = diagonal (= from one corner to the other)
    - διαίρεση (n.) = division
    .
  3. εκ
    - φράση (n.) = sentence, something that is told/uttered –> εκ + φράζω (v.tr.) = express
    - βάλλω (v.tr.) = project, shoot –> εκ + βάλλω = expel, exhude
    .
  4. εν
    - έργο (n.) = work, project –> εν + έργεια (n.) = action
    - τόπος (n.) = place –> εν + τοπίζω (v.tr.) = locate
    .
  5. επί
    - όρκος (n.) = oath –> επί + ορκος (adj.) = he who has broken (stepped on) an oath
    - δεξιός (adj.) = right (as opp. to ‘left’) –> επι + δέξιος = skillful (no, we have nothing against left-handed people!)
    - “τρία επί τέσσερα” = three times four
    .
  6. περί
    - πατώ (v.tr.) = step (on) –> περί + πατος = promenade (stepping / walking around)
    - βλέπω (v.tr.) = see –> περί + βλεπτος = someone who is visible to / seen by / worth to be seen by anyone
    - “περί ανέμων και υδάτων” = of cabbages and kings (literally, “of winds and waters”)
    .
  7.  προ
    - διάθεση (n.) = mood, disposition –> προ + διάθεση = predisposition, vocation
    - ηγούμαι (v.intr.) = lead –> προ + ηγούμενος (adj.) =  previous
    - “προ Χριστού” (π.Χ.) = before Christ, BC
    .
  8. συν
    - γένος (n.) = line, breed –> (συν)* συγ + γενής (n.) = relative
    -  υπάρχω (v.intr.) = exist –> συν + υπάρχω (v.intr.) = coexist
    - “ένα συν δύο” = one plus two
    .
  9. υπέρ
    - ισχύς (n.) = strength, power –> υπερ + ισχύω (v.intr.) = prevail, override
    - διπλός (adj.) = double –> υπέρ + διπλος (adj.) = king-size (bed)
    - “ψήφισα υπέρ του κόμματος Χ” = I voted for X party
    .
  10. υπό
    - γη (n.) = ground, earth –> υπό + γειος (adj.) = underground
    - χρέος (n.) = debt, duty –> υπο + χρεώνω (v.tr.) = force, compel
    - “τρεις βαθμοί υπό το μηδέν” = three degrees below zero
    .


In the production of words, some  of the above prepositions are affected by the initial letter of the word they are added to. In particular:

  • διά, επί, υπό: they lose their final vowel before a word that starts with a vowel (διέλευση, επανάσταση, υπαρχηγός)
  • εκ: becomes εξ before a word that starts with a vowel (εξηγώ, εξαιρετικός)
  • εν, συν: their final -ν- is changed as follows:
    + word starting from π, β, φ –> -ν- becomes -μ- (εμπαθής, συμβαίνει)
    + word starting from κ, γ, χ –> -ν- becomes -γ- (εγγραφή, συγγενής)
    + word starting from ν, μ, λ, ρ, σ –> -ν- becomes whatever letter follows (σύννεφο, έμμεσος, σύλλογος, έρρινος, σύσσωμος)
    συν becomes συ (loses the final -ν-) when followed by a word starting from ζ, ξ, σκ, σπ, στ (σύζυγος, σύξυλος, σύσκεψη)

Also: Some words starting with -o- (ομαλός, όνομα, όροφος, όλεθρος, ορυχείο, οδύνη) turn this -ο- into -ω- when preceded by a preposition (ανώμαλος, επώνυμο, διώροφος, πανωλεθρία, χρυσωρυχείο, επώδυνος).

One more thing to retain, that will make remembering prepositions a little easier: as we have seen in the examples above, some Greek prepositions are very similar to their respective English particles (prefixes), as in

  • diagonal (διά)
  • expel (εκ)
  • predisposition (προ) 

while some others have an exact equivalent, as in

  • coexist (συν, from the equivalent Latin prefix)
  • override (υπέρ)

 

 

Posted in Learn Greek | Tagged | Leave a comment

Lesson 16: Prepositions of the Greek Language

Today we will devote our lesson to the Prepositions of the Greek language. We will learn

  • which are the Prepositions,
  • their meaning,
  • the construction (syntax) of prepositional phrases.

Prepositions are the little undeclinable words that are placed before nouns or adverbs, and express place, manner, time, cause, amount, etc.

Prepositions are an all-important part of speech, because they help us understand the relation between words of a phrase. Furthermore, they are widely used to form a major part of Greek vocabulary, as they precede simple words and, subsequently, modify them by superposing additional layers of meaning.


Table of Greek Prepositions & their meanings

1. αντί instead of preference
2. από a.from
b.since
c.than / to
d.by
a. starting point,
origin, moving
away from
d. cause, agent
3. για a.for
b.to
c.about
a. cause, duration
b.destination, purpose
c. reference
4. δίχως without lack, exception
5.εξαιτίας because of cause of negative developments
6. ίσαμε until,
up to
place, time, amount
7. κατά a.against
b.during
c.according
d.approx.
a.opposition
b.time
c.the person judging
d.approximate amount
8. με a.with
b.(adverb)
c.by
d.(as)…as
a.accompaniment
b.manner
c.means
d.equality, similarity
9. μετά a.after
b.with
a.time, sequence
b.accompaniment, manner
10. μέχρι until,
up to
time, place, amount
11. παρά a.despite
b.minus, to
a.opposition
b.amount (a little less)
12. πριν before place, time
13. προς to, towards place, destination, time
14. σε a.at
b.in
a.place, reference
b.time, outcome
c.(indirect object)
15. χωρίς without lack, exception, manner
16. ως (έως) until time, place

As a general rule, prepositions are followed by the noun (or nominal phrase) in the accusative case — in rarest occasions, the noun is in the genitive case.

Examples of phrases using the above Prepositions:

1. αντί Πίνω κρασί αντί για νερό.
I drink wine instead of water.
2. από α. Θα φύγουμε από την Αθήνα νωρίς αύριο το πρωί. /Κατάγομαι από την Κέρκυρα.
We’ll leave from Athens early tomorrow morning. / I come from Corfu.

β. Η Καίτη χόρευε από το βράδυ ως το πρωί.
Katy danced from evening ‘til morning.

γ. Προτιμώ το τυρί φέτα από το καμαμπέρ.
I prefer feta cheese to camember.

δ. Η ζημιά έγινε από τους εργάτες της διπλανής πολυκατοικίας.
The damage was done by the workers of the adjacent apartment building.

3. για α. Θα λείψω για τρεις ώρες. / Δικάστηκε για φόνο.
I’ll be absent for three hours. / He was tried for murder.

β. Ο Κώστας έφυγε για το χωριό του. / Πάω για ψάρεμα.
Costas left for his village. / I’m going (for) fishing.

γ. Μας μίλησε για τα νιάτα του.
He told us about his youth.

4. δίχως Τι να την κάνω τη ζωή δίχως την αγάπη σου;
What will I do with my life without your love? (!!)
5.εξαιτίας Ο Πέτρος σκόνταψε εξαιτίας μιας πέτρας.
Petros tripped because of a stone.
6. ίσαμε α. Θα πάω ίσαμε το λιμάνι και θα γυρίσω.
I’ll go (up) to the port and I’ll be back.

β. Θα περιμένω ίσαμε τις τρεις ΄ αν δεν έλθεις, θα φύγω.
I’ll wait until three o’clock; if you don’t come, I’ll go.

γ. Γέμισε το ποτήρι ίσαμε τα χείλη.
He filled the glass up to the rim.

7. κατά α. Οι πολίτες έκαναν μήνυση κατά του Δήμου.
The citizens turned against (sued) the Municipality.

β. Κατά τη διάρκεια της τελετής, δεν ακούστηκε ούτε ψίθυρος.
During the ceremony, not one whisper was heard.

γ. Κατά την άποψή μου, δεν είχες δίκιο.
According to (In) my opinion, you weren’t in the right.

δ. Θα είμαι εδώ κατά τις πέντε το απόγευμα.
I’ll be here at about five in the afternoon.

8. με α. Η Μαρία κάθεται με την Αλεξία στο μπροστινό θρανίο.
Maria is sitting with Alexia at the front desk.

β. Αντιμετωπίζουμε τις δυσκολίες με ψυχραιμία.
We face difficulties with calm (calmly).

γ. Θα κουρέψω τον σκύλο με το ψαλίδι.
I’ll cut the dog’s hair with the scissors.

δ. Ο Θωμάς είναι το ίδιο ωραίος με τον Κυριάκο.
Thomas is as handsome as Kyriacos.

9. μετά α. Μετά από σένα, βγαίνει στη σκηνή η Μαρία.
After you, Maria gets on stage.

β. Μετά βαΐων και κλάδων. (learned, fixed expression)
With palm branches (as when Jesus entered Jerusalem)

10. μέχρι α. Μέχρι να πάψεις να κλαις, δεν έχουμε να συζητήσουμε τίποτα.
Until you stop crying, we have nothing to discuss.

β. Θα είμαι εδώ μέχρι τις οκτώ το βράδυ.
I’ll be here until eight in the evening.

γ. Ρίξε νερό μέχρι την κόκκινη κουκίδα.
Pour water up to the red spot.

11. παρά α. Παρά τη δυνατή βροχή, η Κατερίνα ήρθε στην ώρα της.
Despite strong rain, Katerina came on time.

β. Η ώρα είναι οκτώ παρά τέταρτο. / Έχω τρία ευρώ παρά πέντε λεπτά.
It’s a quarter to eight. / I have three euros minus five cents.

12. πριν Η Ελένη ήρθε πριν από τον Ευγένιο. / Θα σταματήσεις πέντε βήματα πριν από τον τοίχο.
Helene came before Eugene. / You will stop five steps before the wall.
13. προς Το αυτοκίνητο πηγαίνει προς την Πάτρα ΄ να σας πάρουμε μαζί; / Ο άντρας κοιτούσε προς το βουνό. / Θα συναντηθούμε προς το βράδυ.
The car goes to Patras; shall we take you along? / The man was staring towards the mountain. / We’ll meet towards the evening.
14. σε α. Φέτος θα πάμε σε ένα παραθαλάσσιο θέρετρο. / Πηγαίνω στο (σε + το) βουνό κάθε Χριστούγεννα.
This year we’ll go to a coastal resort. / I go to the mountain every Christmas.

β. Θα τα πούμε σε δέκα λεπτά. / Το πιάτο έσπασε σε τρία κομμάτια.
We’ll talk in ten minutes. / The plate broke in three pieces.

γ. Έδωσα το βιβλίο στον (σε + τον) Αντρέα.
I gave the book to Andreas.

15. χωρίς Δεν γίνεται ομελέτα χωρίς να σπάσουμε αυγά. / Τρώω τη σαλάτα μου χωρίς ξίδι. / Προσπάθησε να τελειώσεις τη μελέτη σου χωρίς να κουραστείς πολύ.
You can’t have an omelet without breaking eggs. / I eat my salad without vinegar. / Try to finish your homework without getting too tired.
16. ως (έως) Μείναμε ξύπνιοι ως το πρωί. / Η Σοφία πήγε ως το ταχυδρομείο.
We stayed awake until the morning. / Sophia went (up) to the post office.

But this is not all!

In this lesson, we learned modern Greek prepositions, their meaning as they are used in Greek phrases.

In the next lesson, we will learn the so-called ‘arcaic’ Greek prepositions. These are not used on their own in sentences anymore, but they help form the words of the Greek vocabulary.
.

Posted in Learn Greek | Leave a comment

Holy Mount Athos, Northern Greece, Macedonia

In Northern Greece, to the east of Salonika, second largest city of the country and a great commercial port of the Balkans, stands Chalkidiki.

Chalkidiki is one of Greece’s 51 prefectures; it spreads over 720,053 acres, and it’s been home to Greek-speaking tribes for many, many centuries. When looking at a physical map, you will see a large earthly protrusion into the blue Aegean waters, resulting in a trident – three “fingers” of land pointing to the sea: Cassandra, the blue and green Sithonia, and the tall mount, Athos.

Greece map, Chalkidice, Northern Greece, Mount Athos

Map of Chalkidice


Athos
is also called the Holy Mountain, or the Garden of the All-Holy Mother of Christ. Despite the fact that the whole region is dedicated to a woman, an interdiction of passage for females exists onMount Athos. The peninsula is a monastic haven, unspoiled from urbanization, and a World Heritage site.

From an administrative point of view, Athos is an independent monastic state whose status is governed by ancient and modern laws and rules.

.

“Towns” 

  • Uranopolis: Its name means The City of Heavens. It is the last station before entering Athos – where short-time residency papers are issued for those who wish to enter the area and remain there for a few days.
  • Caryes: A town of approximately 230 inhabitants (census 2001), it is the capital Athos and seat of the clerical and secular administration of the state..
Photo: Karyes, Mount Athos, Greece, Travel in Greece

Caryes, Mount Athos, Greece

As everywhere on the Holy Mountain and its surroundings, females are banned — do you notice that only men are chatting at the street? It is not coincidencial, I assure you.

  • Daphne: A coastal settlement of 38 inhabitants, “used mainly as a port and an entry point to the Athonite monastic state“.

The little port of Daphne

 

Here is a map of Athos, with Uranopolis just outside its boundaries, Caryes at the center and Daphne a little more to the west.

Holy Mount Athos, Greece, map

The independent monastic state of Athos, Northern Greece, Macedonia.

As we can see on the map, the monasteries are built mainly near the coasts:

Monastery near the sea, Northern Greece, Holy Mountain Athos, Travel in Greece

Gregoriou Monastery, Athos, Greece

The mountain (Mount Athos) is 2,000+ meters (6,500+ feet) high.

Holy Mount Athos, Travel in Greece, Northern Greece, Macedonia

Approaching Holy Mount Athos from the sea

High on the mountain tops, suspended between the sea and the sky, the Cross makes the site’s character very clear:

Mount Athos, Greece, Wooden Cross

Cars are not allowed in the area; only exceptions, the buses taking people to and from, some cars belonging to the monasteries, the occasional craftsmen (for the monks don’t need much, they take quite good care of themselves, having gardens to cultivate and crops to gather for their subsistence).

Mount Athos is ideal for hikers: forested, unmolested, where human constructions remain simple and strictly functional:

Rodbench in the woods, Mount Athos, Greece

The Holy Mountain was proclaimed a place of monks in 885, and no laymen or farmers or cattle-breeders were allowed since to settle there.
Long before that,  Pelasgians from the island of Lemnos, Northern Aegean were the ones who populated the peninsula — the ancient Greek historiographer Herodotus recorded five cities.

Today it includes twenty sovereign monasteries, a number of sketes (“communit[ies] of Christian hermits following a monastic rule, allowing them to worship in comparative solitude, while also affording them a level of mutual practical support and security”), and several cells.

Xeropotamou Mnastery, Athos, Greece

Xeropotamou Monastery, Catholicon, ie. the major temple of a monastery

.

Posted in Travel | Leave a comment

Lesson 15: Adjectives, Numerals, Pronouns in Greek

In this post, we’re going to wrap up the chapters on

  • Adjective comparison,
  • Numerals,
  • Pronouns,
in order to move on to entirely new grounds in our next lesson.

———————————————-

I. Adjectives: Degrees of Comparison

In Lesson 9, we talked about the degrees of comparison of Greek adjectives, and we examined those which are formed in a regular manner. Yet, there are also some which are irregular, and now we’re going to see in what their irregularity consists.

a. Greek adjectives whose Comparative and Superlative degrees are not based on the endings (or even on the roots) of the Positive degree. The most common of these are:

Positive Comparative Superlative
καλ- ός
(good)
καλύτερ- ος κάλλιστ- ος, or
άριστ- ος
κακ- ός
(bad)
χειρότερ- ος κάκιστ- ος, or
χείριστ- ος
πολ- ύς
(much, many)
περισσότερ- ος πλείστ- ος
λίγ- ος
(few, scant)
λιγότερ- ος ελάχιστ- ος
μεγάλ- ος
(big)
μεγαλύτερ- ος μέγιστ- ος
μικρ- ός
(small, little)
μικρότερ- ος ελάχιστ- ος
απλ- ός
(simple)
απλούστερ- ος απλούστατ- ος

All the above are also declined in the Feminine and Neutral forms, like normal adjectives do. See Lesson 5 and Lesson 6 for details.

b. There are also some adjectives that do not form a Comparative and a Superlative degree — i.e. they only have a Positive degree. These are adjectives expressing:

  • material from which something is made: ξύλινος (wooden), σιδερένιος (iron),
  • origin / parentage: πατρικός (paternal), ελληνικός (Greek),
  • place from where something comes from or belongs to: ορεινός (mountainous), θαλασσινός (marine),
  • time in which something occurs: πρωινός (matinal), καλοκαιρινός (aestival), αιώνιος (eternal),
  • color: κόκκινος (red), κίτρινος (yellow).


II. Numerals

We have learned numbers up to one hundred (100). But we have a long way to go on our way to infinity.

Number Cardinal Ordinal
101 εκατόν ένα εκατοστός πρώτος
150 εκατόν πενήντα εκατοστός πεντηκοστός
200 διακόσια διακοσιοστός
300 τριακόσια τριακοσιοστός
400 τετρακόσια τετρακοσιοστός
500 πεντακόσια πεντακοσιοστός
600 εξακόσια εξακοσιοστός
700 επτακόσια επτακοσιοστός
800 οκτακόσια οκτακοσιοστός
900 εννιακόσια εννιακοσιοστός
1,000 χίλια χιλιοστός
1,001 χίλια ένα χιλιοστός πρώτος
1,100 χίλια εκατό χιλιοστός εκατοστός
2,000 δύο χιλιάδες δισχιλιοστός
10,000 δέκα χιλιάδες δεκαχιλιοστός
1,000,000 ένα εκατομμύριο εκατομμυριοστός
2,000,000 δύο εκατομμύρια δις εκατομμυριοστός
3,000,000 τρία εκατομμύρια τρις εκατομμυριοστός
4,000,000 τέσσερα εκατομμύρια τετράκις εκατομμυριοστός
10,000,000 δέκα εκατομμύρια δεκάκις εκατομμυριοστός
1,000,000,000 ένα δισεκατομμύριο δισεκατομμυριοστός
2,000,000,000 δύο δισεκατομμύρια δις δισεκατομμυριοστός
3,000,000,000 τρία δισεκατομμύρια τρις τρισεκατομμυριοστός
4,000,000,000 τέσσερα δισεκατομμύρια τετράκις δισεκατομμυριοστός
1,000,000,000,000 ένα τρισεκατομμύριο τρισεκατομμυριοστός

Yep, I said Greek is not very difficult — but, really, are you absolutely certain that you know all numerals in English? (ok, just teasing you…)

Other types of numerals:

Multiplicatives
They show of how many parts something is comprised:

απλός, απλή, απλό   –> simple
διπλός, διπλή, διπλό –> double
τριπλός                       –> triple
τετραπλός                  –> quadruple
πενταπλός                 –> quintuple
etc

or how many times something is bigger than something else:

διπλάσιος, διπλάσια, διπλάσιο         –> twofold
τριπλάσιος, τριπλάσια, τριπλάσιο  –> threefold
τετραπλάσιος                                      –> fourfold
πενταπλάσιος                                      –> fivefold
δεκαπλάσιος                                         –> tenfold
εκατονταπλάσιος                                –> hundredfold

Of course, we have the adjective “half“: μισός, μισή, μισό

…and we shouldn’t forget that the numbers 1, 3, 4 are also declined:

Masculine Feminine Neutral
Nominative ένας μία (μια) ένα
Possessive ενός μίας (μιας) ενός
Accusative ένα(ν) μία (μια) ένα

.

Masculine Feminine Neutral
Nominative τρεις τρεις τρία
Possessive τριών τριών τριών
Accusative τρεις τρεις τρία

.

Masculine Feminine Neutral
Nominative τέσσερις τέσσερις τέσσερα
Possessive τεσσάρων τεσσάρων τεσσάρων
Accusative τέσσερις τέσσερις τέσσερα

 

ΙΙΙ. Pronouns

Having studied most of the pronouns, we will now learn about three more types:

a. Intensive pronouns
These are:

  • ο ίδιος, η ίδια, το ίδιο (=myself, yourself, etc — as in:  I did it myself, Το έκανα ο ίδιος / She paid him herself, Τον πλήρωσε η ίδια)
  • μόνος, μόνη, μόνο + μου / σου / του / της etc (=alone, as in: I went there alone, Πήγα εκεί μόνος μου / She ate it alone, Το έφαγε μόνη της), where the possessive pronoun has to agree in gender, number and case with the person referred to by the adjective μόνος, μόνη, μόνο)
b. Interrogative pronouns
  • ποιος, ποια, ποιο (=who?), [plural: ποιοι, ποιες, ποια]
  • πόσος, πόση, πόσο (=how much / many?)
  • τι (=what?), which is not declined

c. Indefinite pronouns

  • ένας, μία, ένα
  • κανένας (κανείς), καμία, κανένα (=no one, none)
  • καθένας, καθεμία, καθένα (=anybody, anything)
  • κάποιος, κάποια, κάποιο (=somebody)
  • κάμποσος, κάμποση, κάμποσο (=enough, quite a few)
  • άλλος, άλλη, άλλο (=other)
  • μερικοί, μερικές, μερικά (=some)

——————————————————

Exercises

1. Complete the table with the appropriate numerals:

Cardinal Ordinal
1,452
333
6,084
3,105,814
2,012
 67
 20,511

2. Translate the following sentences:

Maria took her purse (= η τσάντα) and went for diner (=το δείπνο, το φαγητό).

The phone rang and Lynn ran (=τρέχω) to pick it up (=σηκώνω).

Give me half your apple (= το μήλο), and take this bottle (= το μπουκάλι).

– –

Key to the exercises:

1.

1,452 –> χίλια τετρακόσια πενήντα δύο
.                χιλιοστός τετρακοσιοστός πεντηκοστός δεύτερος
333 –> τριακόσια τριάντα τρία
.             τριακοσιοστός τριακοστός τρίτος
6,084 –> έξι χιλιάδες ογδόντα τέσσερις
.                 εξάκις χιλιοστός ογδοηκοστός τέταρτος
3,105,814 –> τρία εκατομμύρια εκατόν πενήντα χιλιάδες οκτακόσια
.                        τρις εκατομμυριοστός εκατονπεντηκοστάκις χιλιοστός οκτακοσιοστός δέκατος τέταρτος
2,012 –> δύο χιλιάδες δώδεκα
.                δις χιλιοστός δωδέκατος
67 –> εξήντα επτά
.           εξηκοστός έβδομος
20,511 –> είκοσι χιλιάδες πεντακόσια έντεκα
.                   εικοσάκις χιλιοστός πεντακοσιοστός ενδέκατος
2.  

Η Μαρία πήρε την τσάντα της και πήγε για φαγητό.

Το τηλέφωνο χτύπησε Tκαι η Λιν έτρεξε να το σηκώσει.

Δώσε μοτ το μισό σου μήλο και πάρε αυτό το μπουκάλι.

 

Posted in Learn Greek | Leave a comment

Lesson 14: Greek verbs, Active voice, Revision

.

In order to close the chapter on the Active voice of Greek verbs, today we shall examine

  • the Auxiliary verbs ‘to be’ (είμαι) and ‘to have’ (έχω) in the remaining tenses and modes,
  • the Impersonal verbs, and
  • some Irregular verbs.
Then, we shall proceed to a brief recapitulation (revision) of what we have learnt up to now regarding the conjugation of verbs, so that we’ll be ready to get into the Passive voice in our next lessons.

————————————–

I. Auxiliary verbs

In Greek, auxiliary verbs are what we call ‘defective’, meaning that they cannot be conjugated in all tenses.

a) είμαι

We have already seen how the verb is conjugated in the Present tense. Let’s see some more of it.

Imperfect

Singular Plural
εγώ ήμουν εμείς ήμασταν
εσύ ήσουν εσείς ήσασταν
αυτός ήταν αυτοί ήταν


Future

Singular Plural
θα είμαι θα είμαστε
θα είσαι θα είστε
θα είναι θα είναι

Imperative: No Imperative in modern Greek for verb ‘to be’

Participle (Present): όντας

 

b) έχω

 Imperfect

Singular  Plural
εγώ είχα εμείς είχαμε
εσύ είχες εσείς είχατε
αυτός είχε αυτοί είχαν

Future

Singular Plural
θα έχω θα έχουμε
θα έχεις θα έχετε
θα έχει θα έχουν


Imperative

Singular Plural
(εσύ) έχε (εσείς) έχετε

 Participle (Present):  έχοντας

 

ΙΙ. Impersonal verbs

These are verbs that are formed only in the 3rd person, singular, having no person or thing as subject. They usually are:

  • πρέπει (=must), πρόκειται (~about to), συμφέρει (=be in one’s interest), etc
  • verbs referring to meteorological phenomena: βρέχει (=it’s raining), χιονίζει (=it’s snowing), φυσά (=it’s windy), etc. In other circumstances, these verbs are personal (e.g. Εγώ φυσώ το κερί = I’m blowing the candle).
III. Irregular verbs
These verbs form the various moods of Simple Past in their own, unique way. Let’s see some of them:
Present Simple Past, Indicative SP, Subjunctive SP, Imperative
ανεβαίνω
(ascend)
ανέβηκα να ανεβώ ανέβα, ανεβείτε
βγαίνω
(exit)
βγήκα να βγω βγες, βγείτε
βλέπω
(see)
είδα να δω δες, δείτε
βρίσκω
(find)
βρήκα να βρω βρες, βρείτε
βάζω
(put)
έβαλα να βάλω βάλε, βάλ(ε)τε
έρχομαι
(come)
ήρθα (ήλθα) να έρθω (να έλθω) έλα, ελάτε
δίνω
(give)
έδωσα να δώσω δώσε, δώσ(ε)τε
λέω
(say)
είπα να πω πες, πείτε
μαθαίνω
(learn)
έμαθα να μάθω μάθε, μάθετε
μπορώ
(can)
μπόρεσα να μπορέσω
πηγαίνω
(go)
πήγα να πάω πήγαινε, πηγαίνετε
πίνω
(drink)
ήπια να πιω πιες, πιείτε
παίρνω
(take)
πήρα να πάρω πάρε, πάρ(ε)τε
φεύγω
(leave)
έφυγα να φύγω φύγε, φύγετε
—————————————————-

Revision

Let’s sum up what we’ve learnt so far regarding Greek verbs:

First of all, the auxiliary verbs to be and to have (Present, Indicative); the rest of the tenses can be found in today’s post.

Then, we studied the Active voice of verbs.
Starting with the Indicative mode, we examined the following tenses:

After the Indicative, we examined the
We also learned about the 
that will help us form Subordinate phrases and have a better understanding of the Subjunctive mode.
.
————————————————
.

Exercise

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form (mode, tense, person):

Η Μαρία (είμαι) ____________ πολύ κουρασμένη για να (ανεβαίνω) ________ τα σκαλιά.
Maria is too tired to climb the stairs.

Ο Νίκος (θέλω) ________ να (ξαπλώνω) ____________ , αλλά η μικρή του αδελφή (φωνάζω) ________ στον κήπο.
Nikos wanted to lie down, but his little sister was yelling at the garden.

Αύριο (πηγαίνω) _________________ στη θάλασσα, τι (λέω) _________ , (έρχομαι) _____________ μαζί μας;
Tomorrow we’ll go to the beach, what do you say, are you coming with us?

Πού (είμαι) _____________ ο αδελφός σου; Πρέπει να (δίνω) ______________ εξετάσεις την άλλη βδομάδα και δεν (διαβάζω) ________________ τίποτα ακόμα.
Where is your brother? He must pass his exams next week, and he hasn’t studied anything yet.

Key to the exercise

- είναι / ανεβεί

- ήθελε / ξαπλώσει / φώναζε

- θα πάμε / λες / θα έλθεις (έρχεσαι)

- είναι / δώσει / έχει διαβάσει

 

.

Posted in Learn Greek | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Lesson 13: Greek verbs

In this lesson, we will complete our exploration into the forms of the Active voice of verbs by learning about

  • the Subjunctive mode
  • the Imperative mode, and
  • the Participle.

 

Verb Declension – Active voice

Subjunctive mode: While Indicative is the mode of the “real”, of what is (or was, or will be) actually happening, Subjunctive expresses a potentiality, a wish, wonder, etc.

Verbs are preceded by “να“, “για να“, “αν“, “μη(ν)/μήπως“, “όποτε” and other conjunctions (see Lesson 12 for a comprehensive list and their meanings), as well as the language particle “ας” (=let’s), the adverb “ίσως” (=perhaps), etc.

The Subjunctive has three tenses:

The Present and Present Perfect are formed as in the Indicative with only the addition of the appropriate conjunction, particle or adverb before the verb. For example:

Subjunctive, Present 

εγώ να γράφω εμείς να γράφουμε
εσύ να γράφεις εσείς να γράφετε
αυτός να γράφει αυτοί να γράφουν

 

Subjunctive, Present Perfect

εγώ να έχω γράψει εμείς να έχουμε γράψει
εσύ να έχεις γράψει εσείς να έχετε γράψει
αυτός να έχει γράψει αυτοί να έχουν γράψει

The Simple Past is formed on its own theme, in the likeness of the Simple Future, Indicative:

Subjunctive, Simple Past

εγώ να γράψω εμείς να γράψουμε
εσύ να γράψεις εσείς να γράψετε
αυτός να γράψει αυτοί να γράψουν

 

As for the Imperative mode, it includes only two tenses:

Imperative, Present

1rst person
2nd person γράφ -ε γράφ -ετε
3rd person


Imperative, Simple Past

1rst person
2nd person γράψ -ε γράψ -τε
3rd person

As you can see, the ending of the 2nd person in the plural number is formed without an -ε- .

Verbs  like αγαπώ (love) and ωφελώ (benefit), ending in a stressed syllable (-ώ-), form the Imperative as follows:

Imperative, Present

1rst person
2nd person αγάπ -α αγαπ -άτε
3rd person

 

1rst person
2nd person (ωφέλ -ει) ωφελ -είτε
3rd person


Imperative, Simple Past

1rst person
2nd person αγάπ -ησε αγαπ -ήστε
3rd person
1rst person
2nd person ωφέλ -ησε ωφελ -ήστε
3rd person

…And last, but not least, the Participle:

In the Active voice, the participle expresses manner — e.g.
Πήγα στο σπίτι τρέχοντας. (I went home running.)

It is formed only in the Present tense by combining the root of the verb/word and the ending
-οντας  or -ώντας.

If we would care to see some examples,

ντύν-ω –> ντύνοντας
μαγειρ-εύω –> μαγειρεύοντας
αγαπ-ώ –> αγαπώντας
σκουπ-ίζω –> σκουπίζοντας
νικ-ώ –> νικώντας 

we would notice that

  • when the ending of the verb is not stressed (-ω), we use the form -οντας
  • if, on the other hand, we’re referring to a verb stressed at the ending syllable (-ώ), then we use the form -ώντας of the participle.

There is another type of Active participle, which we rarely use in Modern Greek. It is formed by the root of the verb and the suffixes -ων, -ουσα, -ον, as in

ενδιαφέρω (Ι present an interest to) which becomes:
ο ενδιαφέρων, η ενδιαφέρουσα, το ενδιαφέρον (=interesting)

This type was more common in Ancient Greek; it is called an adjectival participle and it is usually referred to (and inflected) as an adjective.

 

————————————-

Exercises

(a) Following the example, find the Subjunctive, Imperative and Present Participle of the verbs:

ακούω –> να ακούω, να ακούσω, να έχω ακούσει // άκουγε, άκου // ακούγοντας

πηγαίνω, βλέπω, λέω, φτάνω, γράφω, διαβάζω, αρχίζω, λείπω, τελειώνω

αγαπώ –> να αγαπώ, να αγαπήσω, να έχω αγαπήσει // αγάπα // αγαπώντας

νικώ, πετώ, πηδώ, κοιτώ, κρατώ, πονώ, πεινώ, βοηθώ, λειτουργώ, χρησιμοποιώ, καλώ, ωφελώ

(b) Why not decline the verbs?

———————————–

Key to the exercise:

πηγαίνω –> να πηγαίνω, να πάω, να έχω πάει // πήγαινε // πηγαίνοντας

βλέπω –> να βλέπω, να δω, να έχω δει // βλέπε, δες // βλέποντας

λέω –> να λέω, να πω, να έχω πει // λέγε, πες // λέγοντας

φτάνω –> να φτάνω, να φτάσω, να έχω φτάσει // φτάνε, φτάσε

γράφω –> να γράφω, να γράψω, να έχω γράψει // γράφε, γράψε // γράφοντας

διαβάζω –> να διαβάζω, να διαβάσω, να έχω διαβάσει // διάβαζε, διάβασε // διαβάζοντας

αρχίζω –> να αρχίζω, να αρχίσω, να έχω αρχίσει // άρχιζε, άρχισε // αρχίζοντας

λείπω –> να λείπω, να λείψω, να έχω λείψει // λείπε, λείψε // λείποντας

τελειώνω –> να τελειώνω, να τελειώσω, να έχω τελειώσει // τελείωνε, τελείωσε // τελειώνοντας

νικώ –> να νικώ, να νικήσω, να έχω νικήσει // νίκα // νικώντας

πετώ –> να πετώ, να πετάξω, να έχω πετάξει // πέτα // πετώντας

πηδώ –> να πηδώ, να πηδήξω, να έχω πηδήξει // πήδα // πηδώντας

κοιτώ –> να κοιτώ, να κοιτάξω, να έχω κοιτάξει // κοίτα // κοιτώντας

κρατώ –> να κρατώ, να κρατήσω, να έχω κρατήσει // κράτα // κρατώντας

πονώ –> να πονώ, να πονέσω, να έχω πονέσει // πόνα // πονώντας

πεινώ –> να πεινώ, να πεινάσω, να έχω πεινάσει // πείνα // πεινώντας

βοηθώ –> να βοηθώ, να βοηθήσω, να έχω βοηθήσει // βόηθα // βοηθώντας

λειτουργώ –> να λειτουργώ, να λειτουργήσω, να έχω λειτουργήσει // λειτούργησε // λειτουργώντας

χρησιμοποιώ –> να χρησιμοποιώ, να χρησιμοποιήσω, να έχω χρησιμοποιήσει // χρησιμοποίησε // χρησιμοποιώντας

καλώ –> να καλώ, να καλέσω, να έχω καλέσει // κάλεσε // καλώντας

ωφελώ –> να ωφελώ, να ωφελήσω, να έχω ωφελήσει // ωφέλησε // ωφελώντας

Posted in Learn Greek | Leave a comment

Pelion, The Mountain of the Centaurs

Mount Pelion rises in Central Greece, at 200 miles from Athens. This distance is, of course, an approximation, as Pelion is a big mountain stretching over a whole peninsula — it is, nevertheless, where you will find Volos, the capital of the prefecture, over which tower the imposing heights of the mountain.

You can reach Pelion by road, train, and… boat! Yes, this is not a typo — Pelion’s feet are washed by the blue waves of the Aegean, and some amazingly beautiful beaches are only a breath away from the shady mountain slopes and picturesque villages that you can discover there.

Below is a view of the mountain from above; you can see the sea reflecting the evening sun on the left side of the photo:

Thanks to its varied landscape, Pelion is a summer as well as a winter destination. Its ski resort, at almost 5,000 feet, is one of the first that operated in Greece. With its international level specifications, it attracts ski enthusiasts coming from all around the world to enjoy its tracks, as well as an unforgettable visit to the mountain’s beautiful villages.

 

Travel in Time

Pelion is not only the home of legendary Centaurs. The mariage of King Peleus and Thetis, future parents of the hero Achilles, took place on Pelion — this is where the spark that burnt Troy was initially ignited, the place where Eris (Strife) dropped the golden apple with the inscription “To the fairest” and led to the Judgement of Paris and the subsequent rape of Helen of Troy.

Pelion is where Jason grew up before setting out to fetch the Golden Fleece; the trees of the mountain became lumber for the construction of the mythical ship Argo.

During Ottoman rule of the country (1453 – 1830), many scholars, teachers, priests, merchants, artists and artisans took refuge on the mountain, contributing to the founding of several villages and settlements, the construction of highly tasteful architectural works (mansions, village squares, libraries, churches, monasteries) and to the general wealth of the area. During the 17th and 18th century, Pelion was the richest and most densely populated area in Greece.

Today, many of the old mansions are renovated and operate as traditional hostels. Even if you’re not going to book a room there (which would be one of the best choices, by the way), they’re well worth a visit for their remarkable local architecture characteristics. And, if you think the outside is charming… just wait till you see the inside!

 

Villages of Pelion

There are 24 villages on Pelion mountain, and each one of them is different from the others. Some are big, some are small; some are wealthy, others are humble; some can be seen from miles away, attracting the visitor’s eyes, while others are almost invisible, hidden in the thick woods surrounding them.

Almost all of them have a paved square with high platan trees, a stone fountain and the village church. A coffee shop, a couple of taverns, some shops, perhaps a kiosk complete this quasi-typical image.

Most of the villages have quite a treasure of local sights for the visitor to enjoy. Nature holds premiership, with dozens of secret caverns and bewitching valleys, age-old towering trees, and gargling brooks at every step.

Besides nature’s wonders, man-made constructions are of almost equal beauty. Monasteries and old churches, famous for the history associated with them, featuring unique architecture as well as their masterly woodwork and religious iconography; old, newly constructed, or reconstituted mansions; charming old stone bridges and cobbled alleys, crumbling mills and castles; historical buildings, museums, and libraries.

Every summer you can witness numerous festivals, celebrations, and religious feasts of a local character, while we should also mention the various performances, concerts, and cultural events taking place in the area.

 

Beaches of Pelion

The area of Pelion and its beaches and seaside villages can be distinguished in two main parts:

Lower part of the 3-D map, Pagasitikos bay, with Mount Pelion advancing into the sea on the N-to-S axis, creating the peninsula that separates the bay from the Aegean Sea.

  • the ones inside Pagasitikos bay, which are more “hospitable” and sandy, with relatively shallow and calm waters;
  • the eastern beaches, outside Pagasitikos bay, wild and majestic at the Northern coasts, or with a more graceful beauty to the South.

————————————-

All photos, except otherwise noted, are intellectual property of their respective creators, shared under a Creative Commons license. You can get to the source page by clicking on the images. Please, consult their respective licences before sharing.

Posted in Travel | 1 Comment